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Protester mot estland aven i vitryssland Stylistic Peculiarities in Translating The consequences of a long-term reign of totalitarianism in this B country proved much more serious than initially expected. The prospects of political, economic and social changes also proved more complicated than assumed. A further devel- opment requires not only delineation of goals but also a precise analysis of the totalitarian past.
This is not possible without being aware of the basic peculiarities of the Soviet communism as a political, sociological and cultural phenomenon. Neo-communist tendencies resurging recently in Belarusian society increase inter- est in the analysis of problems connected with the way it is functioning.
It is necessary to emphasise that as far as the Soviet society is concerned, paral- lels with other societies, both in historical and social-political respect, often fail. The Soviet society was a new Protester mot estland aven i vitryssland type. Therefore its accurate description requires focusing especially on terminology and meaning since the system created by the Bolscheviks differed considerably from previous formations.
It was found- ed on communist ideology and class struggle theory, it introduced state-exclusive property, one party dictatorship, absolute centralisation of power and abolition of distribution of authority.
Together with a complex chain of state and party control it constituted a perfectly tailored set of tools for the party dictatorship. The abso- lute power of the communist party facilitated an effective elimination of noncon- formism. At the same time, a careful selection elevated bureaucrats, role models of a perfect Soviet man for millions of its co-citizens, to the top of the party hierarchy. They also believed they had on their hands the key to the secret of social development and a magical recipe for a miracle.
They needed the man, of this utopia, a man-cogwheel of the state machine. The idea of this type of individual was nothing new; it came from the nineteenth-century Russian theories of socialism. Their activity in this direction amounted mainly to attempts at forming the new mentality.
Its manifestation was to be a negative attitude towards Christian tradition and its spiritual values. This model of the new man found its incarnation in the attitudes of activists and ideologists of the Bolshevik coup.
The Soviet man of the post-revolution era took to creating a new social-political order. In reality, it was a struggle with the world of universal values in the name of rela- tive ones subordinate to the idea of socialism-communism. They were characterised by conformism and acquiescence of the existence of the ruling system. The totalitarian system formed individuals that reasoned in categories detached 8 from reality and closely connected with the ideology.
It was thanks to this ideology that they possessed a few constant peculiarities. In this consciousness, there is no place for absolute values of a metaphysical-religious dimension, nor is there a place for such freedom that would serve those values.
The Soviet man was enslaved spir- itually to such an extent that he no longer felt the very need for liberty. A typical manifestation of this enslavement was a total lack of responsibility. If, on the contrary, he was an ordinary citizen, he became an obedi- ent executor of decisions of the leaders.
In doctrinal terms, this type arose under circumstances of Bolshevism, i. Leninism "Protester mot estland aven i vitryssland" its logical continuation, Stalinism, established on the national Rus- sian tradition and on a suitably adapted Marxist doctrine.
The whole Soviet history eventually to a history of forming the Soviet man, creating conditions under which an individual loses his or her primary motivation to act, begins to absorb and to accumulate dogmas delivered by the newly created political system, to think and to feel in a new way. Each consecutive generation considered the Soviet conditions to be more normal and the last generation considered them as the only normal ones.
Among them were sparse groups that did not accept the communist model of running a society at all and that declared it openly. Those groups were suppressed by isolating their members in concentration camps, where they most often died, or by sending them abroad.
A still more numerous group were those who shared their views but did not have the courage to speak up.
One of the basic traits of the man of the totalitarian era was his isolation and separation from his own roots. Such an isolated person did not see any point in preserving the old traditional values since they were considered useless in the new and changed world in which only one party dictated the will and ideology.
In order to keep their positions, the party forced everyone to leave any duties not result- ing from current tasks of the party. These aims had nothing in common with the previous political and social system and the methods for their achievement were usually based on spiritual, psychological and physical terror.
Hence the parting with national and cultural tradition took place very quickly. On the other hand, the ideal of the Soviet system was a machine-man deprived of freedom and free will.
Unity achieved in such a way gave every human a sense of recognition of the value of his own existence. Man was undergoing an absolute submission to authority, losing the instinct of resistance and freedom and was becoming completely plastic, incapable of any independent personal choice, and he accustomed to adjusting his Protester mot estland aven i vitryssland values to the interests of the ruling party.
An inevitable consequence of the collective existence and cooperation in a communist society was a tendency to unify personality and to reduce it to a state of commonness. A motto was coined — be like everyone else. This type of society also gave rise to distorted criteria for judging the assets of the individual where medi- ocrities were elevated and outstanding Protester mot estland aven i vitryssland were exterminated. Citizens thinking independently were persecuted and the most talented ones were levelled to ubiquity.
It was not necessarily done by authorities. Other citizens themselves made every effort to deprive any talented individual of his chances to develop individuality. This phenomenon acquired a mass character and spread over every aspect of life. This in turn affected the psychological condition of citizens characterised by boredom, sadness and a constant expectation of some- thing worse to come.
Such a society was doomed to stagnation. What was emphasised before, the Soviet man appeared as a result of adapting 10 to certain social conditions. Instead, everyone to oppose it became, in the eyes of the collective, an incarnation of evil. After its collapse, a few feeble attempts at resuscitating this type of individuals caused a kind of counter-revolution which gave rise to unhealthy am- bition, suspiciousness, social amnesia and asocial attitudes that required constant control.
Cynical revengefulness and pathological suspiciousness, insincerity and hypocrisy in Soviet surroundings were not perceived as unacceptable or even negative. As a matter of fact, it was all about the relativity of moral principles, based on acknowledging the right of every person to revise them. This relativism was, in the course of time, instilled in the whole population, replacing Christian principles, destroyed together with religion, shaping a relativist understanding of morality in Soviet people.
As a result, the worst way of behaviour is not experienced as wrong because it is not experienced per se but as a part of a more complex whole, which, as a whole, is not wrong in the eyes of the Soviet man.
Moral principles do not condition his behaviour. In Soviet society, they were replaced by means of controlling people, superiority of the collective, the ideology of the state, absolute dependence on authority, forced or supervised labour. Nonetheless, it had its own operative criteria for assessing its members. Being situational, in many cases they did not correspond to analogous criteria in European societies. One can, therefore, imagine easily what the condition of the post-Soviet society was when the so-called collectivism sunk into oblivion and the state authority ceased to be a totalitarian one.
Under such circumstances, permanent traits of character typical of life in such a society are created. It is a kind of people oriented on passivity, daily affairs and mindless work. This type is also characterised by a distinctly dominant pretence and demand instinct.
Its representatives are usually incapable of any innovatory activity that requires responsible, independent reasoning. The consequence of this state is also a situation where man is being deprived of a chance to use the majority of fundamental concepts necessary to understand moral questions Protester mot estland aven i vitryssland the surrounding reality. At the same time, an instinct of submission to power perceived indiscriminately as an idealised authority is forming in him, and there appears a constant inclination to eliminate the people who breach norms commonly adopted in the totalitarian society.
Such a person is always sympathis- ing with the majority of citizens loyal to authority. Hyperbolic stereo- typical thinking was typical of him, a distinctive tendency, and even an inclination to use force in arbitrating discordances and contradictory matters, destructiveness and cynicism of action.
Moreover, one always tried to decline responsibility and lay it on others. Over seventy years of the reign of the Soviet system, over 4 generations, ac- companied by a partial physical annihilation of the original population, resulted in hypocrisy and distortion of everything that had always been of values for hu- manity: In the communist Society, there occurred a delocalisation of man. They were smart and cunning, their methods were sometimes terrible.
No kindness nor compassion or mercy or any limits for evil. Conversation with them was not inspiring, rather, it caused anxiety by the fact that they humili- ated what was the best in people and humanity. One had to believe and yet not believe, and the Party tried to maintain such a state of mind among its mem- bers and, if possible, the whole society so as to lay the responsibility for the exist- ing system on everyone. Lack of open criticism or any possibility to express real opinions led to a situation where independent opinion could not appear even during a casual conversation.
Hypocrisy was spread on a massive scale. People said thing, thought another and did yet another. Functioning in the two realities, the true one and the utopian one, led inevitably to making a constant choice what type of individuality should be used in order to achieve a given aim.
It follows that, under conditions of a disintegrated and internally contradictory system of norms, people should meet different requirements.
This situation, in turn, led to a collapse of the system of norms and social bonds, caused disintegration of personality, which as- serted itself in lack of mutual respect and of compliance with rules of co-existence.
Majority of the nation had to lead a double intellectual and spiritual life. While act- ing openly and publicly, a man could repeat most grotesque lies and conceal a most plain truth.
In the second life, a limited circle of friends and acquaintances, this truth could be pronounced. The state information monopoly together with strict ideological censorship, reinforced by political denunciation practices, gradually led to a decline in intellectual and spiritual life.
The factor that enabled people in other societies to form their own opinions on political, social and matters, that is, openness and freedom of discussion, became impossible in USSR.
Under these circumstances, the majority of citizens simply did not know what to think and steeped in cynicism and conformism. Ideological dogmas and chants were spoken out loud, but never treated seriously. A long-term moulding of man under such circumstances endowed him with peculiar features which certainly may be termed as traits of the Soviet type of man.
He was characterised by a primitive egalitarianism understood as a manifestation of social justice. It was accompanied by
Protester mot estland aven i vitryssland lack of respect for private property, Protester mot estland aven i vitryssland cannot seem strange since this property was forbidden and so was indi- vidual, not subordinate to the state, work.
This was accompanied Protester mot estland aven i vitryssland the loss of tradition, civic virtues and misunderstanding of democratic rules of coexistence and political system. standing of the situation and even certain signs of protest, there exists a common evaluation of national movements in Ukraine, Lithuania, Estonia and other coun- tries.
som en man av folket som skulle kämpa mot den gamla kom- Det under senare år ökande intresset för Vitryssland märks även i ett flertal nya. I realtid kan vi följa oppositionens protester på till exempel Maidan i Kiev. De hot och utmaningar som idag finns mot vår säkerhet, de står i skarp kontrast mot de hot som min generation fick lära sig Europa har förändrats avsevärt och även Sverige. Estland, Lettland och Litauen har rätt till sin frihet.
som det var just då, även om arbetet med att bygga en fungerande europeisk att dominera den Maidan-rörelse som växte fram i protest mot det ryska trycket så På fredag tar president Obama mot Estlands, Lettlands och Litauens Vårt agerande i Vitryssland och i Zimbabwe är två exempel på det.