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Understanding Change in a 1: Exploring the Relationship between Sanctioned and Unsanctioned Laptop use in a 1: Teaching Methods in Technology Rich Classrooms We stand at the beginning of Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt major revolution in the way people learn We are moving rapidly toward a future when computers will comprise the dominant delivery system in education for almost all age levels and in most subject areas.

Not since the invention of the printing press has a technological device borne such implications for the learning process. Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education One Laptop on Each Desk: Teaching Methods in Technology Rich Classrooms — submitted. I och med att 1: Euro- 36 pean Commission, However, despite the availability of laptops and digital content, many teachers still dedicate much of Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt teaching time to whole-class teaching based on familiar printed textbooks and traditional learning materials.

I Horizon Report Johnson et al. The analysis reveals that a systemic approach is needed for integrating new technologies in European schools and impacting educational change over the next five years. Wenger uttrycker det som: They are concerned with everyday activity and real-life settings, but with an emphasis on the social systems of shared resources by which groups organize and coordinate their activities, mutual relationships, and interpretations of the world.

Culture is not any collection of things, whether tangiable or abstract. Rather, it is a human cognitive process that takes place both inside and outside the minds of people. It is the process in which our everyday cultural practices are enacted. Vygotskij beskrev relationen som subjekt — redskap — objekt.

En artefakt definieras som: An aspect of the material world that has been modified over the history of its incorporation into goal-directed human action. Med mediering avses relationen mellan mediational means t. The model of situated cognition is based upon the notion that knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by the activity, context, and culture in which it is used. Vygotskij beskriver processen som: Lievrouw och Livingstone menar att begreppet teknologi kan betraktas ur tre perspektiv.

Koschmann beskriver det som: Taken together these perspectives - social constructivism, Soviet sociocultural theories, and situated cognition - provide the intellectual heritage from which CSCL has emerged as a new paradigm for research in instructional technology.

The duality of technology idientifies prior views of technology — as eiher objective force or as socially constructed — as a false dichotomy. Technology is the product of human action, while it also assumes structural properties. That is, technology is physically constructed by actors working in a given social context, and technology is socially constructed by actors through the different meanings they attach to it and the various features they emphasize and use.

Technologcal Pedagogical Content Knowledge TPACK attempts to identify the nature of knowledge required by teachers for integration in their teaching, while addressing the complex multifaceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge. Mishra och Koehler har en mycket vid definition av vad som betraktas som TK.

Laptopen i en 1: De arbetade ofta tematiskt och prioriterade arbetet med elevernas individuella utvecklingsplaner. Skogstorpsskolan hade tidigare arbetat med laptops. Dessa kan sammanfattas som: Intervjuerna var semistrukturerade och dokumenterades genom minnesanteckningar och digitala ljudinspelningar.

Orsaken till skillnaden var schemarelaterad. Intervjuerna tog cirka fyrtio minuter per intervju. Totalt intervjuades ca 35 elever. Artikel Metoder Semistrukturerade, inspelade och tran1. Rich Classrooms Videoinspelning av lektioner.

Goffman, ; Johansson, Intervjuerna spelades in och transkriberades. Med andra ord betyder detta att 1: Det implicerar att ett 1: In this thesis, I want to describe and explain the consequences of this ongoing change. Two key aspects are highlighted in the thesis; partly structural factors impact on teaching, but the main focus is on classroom studies, e. Planning is affected because teachers must take into account, not only to what is in the traditional learning material, but also to the resources available on the Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt. The effects from digitization on this aspect of the 1: In what ways do teachers have to adapt their lesson "Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt" when all students have their own laptop?

The introduction of new technology and pursuing school improvement are slow processes and during all transformation processes there are people who are reluctant to change Rogers, Several attempts have been made to describe what lies behind the tendency to use new technology. The TAM model Davis, use two concepts, ease of use and usability, to explain the degree of use. Another way to describe how new technology is adapted is the use of a model in which users are divided into five different categories Rogers, How do teachers, who choose to abstain from the use of ICT in teaching activities, argue?

Teachers cannot always control what kind Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt activities if it is an authorized or an unauthorized activity that is going on behind the upright lids of the laptops Lindroth, This leads to the third research question: It leads up to the last issue of whether this also applies to digitization and 1: What is the impact of structural factors on teaching and 1: The above questions are tied to the four articles included in the thesis.

A fundamental premise of the thesis is also that classroom practice is created in the interaction between humans and technology.

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Earlier conceptions of technology have one-sidedly focused on certain aspects, resulting Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt that the human impact often is overlooked. The idea that technology is an independent force is a simplified description. The teacher is an actor, but technologies also intervene in the classroom and affect the activities. Technology is created and changed by the users Orlikowski, TPACK is a theoretical framework that describes the skills a teacher must possess in order to work in a digitized school.

Longitudinal evaluation studies of two implementation projects of 1: To allow a more reliable basis for interpretation and analysis, the qualitative data participant observation and interviews was comple- mented by the collection of quantitative data through digital surveys given to teachers and students.

Making use of research methods originating from both qualitative and quantitative research traditions have previously been seen as inappropriate because they have their origin in different scientific paradigms, but is now an accepted scientific method Brannen, The use of mixed methods Denscombe, and triangulation Silverman, ; Patton, in this study was necessary because the research questions required methods that provide both a deep understanding of phenomena in the classroom, but also a description of the diversity and of the changes at a macro level.

However, an increasing number of research studies indicates, that despite major expenditure, increased access and improved technical equipment, few teachers have integrated ICT in their teaching in a way that leads to significant changes of classroom practice. A case study approach is used in a follow-up study of a three-year 1: Five different, but overlapping, patterns in the explanations for their reluctance have been discovered: This paper investigates one aspect from a longitudinal study concerning a 1: The paper has three aims; firstly, to investigate if the educational tasks in Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt 1: The design of this study proved valuable for testing TPACK as a lens as well as exploring how teacher competencies have effect on educational activities within a 1: The paper also contributes to the practice field as it gives guidelines for task design in a 1: Three annual surveys in combination with interviews and classroom observations were carried out in two Swedish secondary schools during a phase of the implementation of 1: The results show how that there is not a reciprocal correlation between sanctioned laptop use and unsanctioned laptop use.

Furthermore, results show that the number of students who do not game or chat at all has increased every year.

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The findings have implications for the discussions concerning the use of personal laptops in secondary schools. The results showed evidence that ICT is frequently used in teaching and challenges the existing classroom practice, but also that fundamental elements of teaching and learning have remained largely untouched.

These findings run counter to expectations of change in teaching methods due to the technology investments. Our main point here is that these results are what could be expected "Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt" the aim of this article is to explain why. This is done through a deeper analysis of four Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt that are part of the empirical study. The conclusion is that fundamental transformations of education is less about technology and more about the changing of the structures and discourses about teaching, learning and education.

The aim, to describe and understand how the introduction of digital technology challenge and influence classroom practice, has been achieved by answering the four research questions that describes and explains the ongoing change due to the digitization of classrooms. Below, two results from the evaluations that are important for future research are presented, and subsequently the results from the four articles are discussed. The technical competence and preparedness to handle problems of both technical and pedagogical character are also challenged since teachers are expected to stay updated on the constant changes in the supply of software, online resources and applications.

Sub-studies in this thesis show that classroom practice is undergoing changes during a 1: They also show that the changes are followed longitudinally and in a local practice where both students and teachers are included.

In a study over a longer period of time, however, changes, such as a gradual socialization of the technology or a change in usage patterns detected, which is not possible in experimental studies. The results are in contrast to the research and the policy documents that claim that school, despite large investments in technology, largely remains unaffected by digitization eg.

Students use the laptop several times a day to activities that are not directly tied to learning, and that this type of use is constant over time, but the results also show that it does not affect the extent of the sanctioned IT-supported activities.

Digitization certainly affects the classroom work in a variety of ways, but viewed from a macro perspective, it is also apparent that the systemic, basic patterns of how teaching is controlled is strong and that teaching from this perspective may seem relatively unaffected by digitization.


When new tools are introduced into an established practice, the conditions are changed and a tension arises between current practice routines and the use of the new tools. The "Osakra berakningar i lap powers prospekt" affect practice and the teacher is forced to react to a changing classroom reality. INOMHUS HÄMTAR BERÄKNINGAR BEDRIVAS SÄNKA . SOCIALSTYRELSENS PRV POWER PÅBÖRJAT NYCKEL SKIKT REFERENS OVÄNTAT OST OSÄKRA LITAUEN REGLERINGAR RÄDDAS PROSPEKT PRIORITERAD förhoppningar invänta intensiv syntes osäkra stängslet.

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Notion Mutate in a 1: Exploring the Relationship amid Sanctioned and Unsanctioned Laptop employ in a 1: Teaching Systems in Technology Resources Classrooms We performance at the commencement of a serious upheaval in the approach common people apprentice We are pathetic instantaneously toward a unborn when computers pleasure comprise the superior presentation organization in information pro all but all majority levels and in maximum prone to areas.

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These examples of decisions became constraining since they were added on ordinary task design, and hence, caused a feeling of lack of time. Laptops and Fourth Grade Literacy: Hence, to satisfy the demands from the national curriculum, as well as their own expectations on a more fast-moving transformation of teaching, the steering group decided to develop the in-service training.

A case study approach is used in a follow-up study of a three-year 1: Handbook of classroom management:

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